Three-Stream Model: The Future Of Education

Three Stream Model: The Future Of Education

The Three Stream model prepares students for tertiary education by addressing the challenges facing South Africa’s education system. For this purpose, three streams are offered by the Department of Basic Education, namely:

  • Academic Stream 
  • Technical Occupational Stream
  • Technical Vocational Stream

Essentially, this means that students with a Grade 9 certificate, can choose to complete their matric through the academic stream, one of the two technical streams OR apply to a college.

Online Matric

Three Stream Model Explained

Online Matric

What Does This Mean For Grade 9 Students?

Once a student has completed Grade 9, they can choose a stream that is more in line with their interests. This is particularly important for students who are not academically minded and who would otherwise have dropped out of school before completing matric. Students can also enrol in a college with their subjects chosen at school level.

What Does The Three Stream Model Consist Of?

The three streams are the Academic stream, Technical Vocational stream and Technical Occupational stream. 

Academic Stream

This is the traditional educational system South Africa uses. In the past, the academic stream was the only stream available, and this may be the reason why many students dropped out or failed.

In the current basic school system, this stream is the most “common” stream and is well known.

Can I Do The Academic Stream?

The academic stream is currently offered to: 

What Are My Options After The Academic Stream?

In this stream, learners are prepared to further their studies at a tertiary institution. The main goal of the academic stream is for students to get accepted into universities where they can be trained and prepared for professions like:

  • Academics
  • Accounting
  • Commerce
  • Natural Sciences
  • Social Sciences

This stream is offered in both “traditional schools” and “special needs schools”

Technical Vocational Stream

This stream prepares learners for technical college and has 12 subjects that include electrical, civil and mechanical engineering.

Can I Do The Technical Vocational Stream?

The Technical vocational stream is currently offered to:

  • Grade 10 – 12 in Technical High Schools (leading to a National Senior Certificate) 
  • This stream can also be found at technical, agricultural and art high schools

This stream offers the following:

  • Practical Learning (50%)
  • Theoretical Learning (50%)

What Options Do I Have After Completing The Technical Vocational Stream?

This learning stream leads to employment, self-employment and entrance into Higher Education Institutions. This stream is aimed at a specific profession and prepares learners for professional learning and work. This can be done through:

  • Universities of Technology
  • Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Colleges
  • Technical High Schools

Vocational Training graduates can become professionals such as:

  • Artist
  • Agriculturists
  • Beauty Technologists
  • Catering
  • Craftsmen
  • Engineers
  • Mechanical, Medical or Electrical Technologists
  • Physical Trainers
  • Sports Specialists
  • Teachers

Technical Vocational Stream

This stream prepares learners for technical college and has 12 subjects that include electrical, civil and mechanical engineering.

Can I Do The Technical Vocational Stream?

The Technical vocational stream is currently offered to:

Online Matric
  • Grade 10 – 12 in Technical High Schools (leading to a National Senior Certificate) 
  • This stream can also be found at technical, agricultural and art high schools

This stream offers the following:

  • Practical Learning (50%)
  • Theoretical Learning (50%)

What Options Do I Have After Completing The Technical Vocational Stream?

This learning stream leads to employment, self-employment and entrance into Higher Education Institutions. This stream is aimed at a specific profession and prepares learners for professional learning and work. This can be done through:

  • Universities of Technology
  • Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Colleges
  • Technical High Schools

Vocational Training graduates can become professionals such as:

  • Artist
  • Agriculturists
  • Beauty Technologists
  • Catering
  • Craftsmen
  • Engineers
  • Mechanical, Medical or Electrical Technologists
  • Physical Trainers
  • Sports Specialists
  • Teachers

Technical Occupational Stream

The technical occupational stream initially started in Schools of Skill in 2017. Schools of Skills are schools for learners with special education needs, which have been offering mainly skills-focused subjects.

The Department of Basic Education wants to fully implement this into the rest of the education system through. 

Can I Do The Technical Occupational Stream?

This stream is specifically aimed at occupation. It is for students who want to leave matric and immediately enter the workplace. Students who choose this stream will work in occupational trades. 

This stream is offered to the following students:

  • Grade 10-12

What Are My Options After Completing The Technical Occupational Stream?

It prepares students to enter the workplace after their secondary schooling and it focuses on skills such as:

  • Bricklaying
  • Boilermaking
  • Carpentry
  • Catering
  • Cosmetology
  • Farming
  • Glasswork
  • Glazing
  • Hairdressing
  • Panel-beating 
  • Plumbing
  • Spray-painting
  • Upholstery
  • Welding
  • Woodwork and many more

What Are The Principles Of The Three Stream Model?

According to the Chief Director, Dr Simelane the three-stream model has the following principles:

 

  1. The model is specific and well-planned
  2. It is focused on the learners’ needs
  3. It meets the needs of South Africa’s economy because it:
  • Promotes lifelong learning
  • It corrects the mistakes made in the past

4. This model should ensure access to education after school and encourage students to study through different routes and without a Grade 12 certificate.

What Are The Aims Of The Three Stream Model?

  • Improve the quality of learning 
  • Meet the diverse needs of learners 
  • Right the mistakes of the past
  • Empower learners to be creative and logical thinkers
  • Focus on the basic skills of learners such as counting, reading and writing
Online Matric

The two technical streams were developed in 2016 for students in Grades 10 – 12. The Department of Basic Education wanted to start with 10 schools in each province, to see if schools would accept the new streams of learning. 

To their surprise, Gauteng had 15 schools and the Western Cape had 23 schools. This year (2021), 95 schools implemented the new streams in Grade 9, which is more than what they initially wanted. Ten other schools in North West province will start in 2022.


These were the subjects that were first introduced:

TECHNOLOGY

 

This subject was further divided into three sections namely:

MATHEMATICS

This subject was further divided into 


SCIENCE

 

This subject was divided into

 

The Main Reasons For The Three Stream Model 

More than 750 000 students in South Africa have dropped out of school. This number is alarming and even researchers are unsure if these are temporary or permanent dropouts. 


There has been a rise in the number of Grade 9 – 11 students
dropping out of school and therefore the Department of Basic Education has decided to give learners more options. Some of the reasons why students drop out are:

 

  • Limited Subject Choices
  • Basic Learning 
  • Personal Reasons
  • COVID-19

Limited Subject Choice

There are not many subjects to choose from and the subjects are not designed to meet the needs of all the students at school level. It is as a result of this that a lot of students do not see school in a positive light. The three model stream aims to close the gap and offer courses to meet students:

 

  • Abilities,
  • Aptitude, and
  • Interest

Basic Learning

There is a lack of basic knowledge among students, especially in areas such as writing, reading, and counting. The three streams aim to address this, by helping students gain basic knowledge through the two streams.

Personal Reasons

Many learners drop out of school because they have family responsibilities, which forces them to look for work. This, in the end, makes students lose interest and motivation to continue their schooling.

COVID- 19

Many students and parents are concerned about their well-being since the outbreak of this worldwide pandemic. Not only are they being exposed by their fellow passengers on public transport and peers, but also by their teachers. Many learners drop out because they get seriously ill and infect their loved ones at home. To avoid infecting family members at home, students choose to drop out.

How Can We Fix This?

We can fix this, by doing these two things:

 

  • Improving our education
  • Improving teacher training

Improving Our Education

When we improve our education, we will see fewer students dropping out of school. We can improve our education through the three model streams as well as allow students to study without matric.

Improving Teacher Training

Teachers should never stop learning and developing their skills and knowledge. Students need effective teaching from their teachers and the Department of Education should provide more support to teachers.

Author: Jesme
Editor: Sanel Louwrens
Date Published: February 14, 2022

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